Note on Vegetarian/Vegan labels

The recipes labeled Vegetarian and/or Vegan may have references to animal products.

The animal products referred to are an optional protein source for omnivores, but not required for the actual recipe.

Measurements, Conversions, and Substitutions


Common Conversions
Pinch or dash = less than 1/8 teaspoon
3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons = 1 fluid ounce
12 tsp = 1/4 cup
4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup
48 tsp = 1 cup
16 tablespoons = 1 cup
1 cup = 8 fluid ounces
2 cups = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon

Cooking Calculators


Food Equivalents

This Measurement... ... Equals This Measurement
3 medium apples or bananas about 1 pound
1 ounce baking chocolate 1 square
2 slices bread about 1 cup fresh bread crumbs
1 pound brown sugar 2 1/4 cups packed
4 tablespoons butter 1/2 stick
8 tablespoons butter 1 stick
4 sticks butter 1 pound
6 ounces chocolate chips about 1 cup
1 pound confectioners sugar about 4 1/2 cups sifted
1 pound granulated sugar 2 cups
1/2 pound hard cheese (such as cheddar) about 2 cups grated
1 cup heavy whipping cream 2 cups whipped cream
1 medium lemon 3 tablespoons juice, 2 to 3 teaspoons grated zest
1 pound macaroni 4 cups raw, 8 cups cooked
4 ounces nuts about 2/3 cup chopped
1 large onion about 1 cup chopped
1 cup uncooked rice 4 cups cooked
1 pint strawberries about 2 cups sliced
1 large tomato about 3/4 cup chopped
3 to 4 tomatoes about 1 pound
1 pound all-purpose flour about 4 cups sifted

Source: Cooking for Dummies



Substitutions

baking powder 1 tsp 1/4 tsp baking soda + 1/2 tsp cream of tartar + 1/4 tsp corn starch
bread crumbs 1 cup 1 cup ground oats
OR
4 slices bread, toasted and crumbled
brown sugar 1 cup, packed 7 oz (volume) white sugar + 2 oz (volume) molasses
butter 1 cup (8 Tbsp) 7 oz (volume) vegetable or olive oil
may cause flattening in baking or extra moistness
OR
1 cup unsweetened applesauce
recommended for baking
buttermilk 1 cup 1 Tbsp lemon juice or vinegar + enough milk to make 1 cup
chocolate, semisweet 1 oz 1 oz unsweetened chocolate + 4 tsp sugar (or sugar substitute)
corn starch 1 Tbsp 2 Tbsp wheat or potato flour
OR
1 Tbsp potato or rice starch
cream of tartar 1 tsp 2 tsp lemon juice or vinegar
egg 1 whole egg 1 Tbsp ground flax soaked in 3 Tbsp water
OR
1/4 c. egg substitute
OR
1/2 banana mashed with 1/2 tsp baking powder
garlic 1 clove 1/8 tsp garlic powder
OR
1/4 tsp garlic, minced
ginger, fresh 1 tsp, minced 1/2 tsp ginger, dried and ground
Herbs, fresh 1 Tbsp, finely cut 1 tsp, dried
honey 1 cup 1-1/4 cup white sugar + 1/4 cup water + 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
hot pepper sauce 1 tsp 3/4 tsp cayenne pepper plus 1 tsp vinegar
lemon grass 2 fresh stalks 1 Tbsp lemon zest
lemon juice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp vinegar
lemon zest 1 tsp 2 Tbsp lemon juice
mayonnaise 1 cup 1 cup sour cream
OR
1 cup plain yogurt
Mushrooms, raw/fresh 1 lb 1 10 oz. can
oil, liquid (vegetable, olive, grapeseed, etc) 1 cup 1 cup any other kind of oil
OR
1 cup applesauce
Onion, raw 1 small 1/4 cup, chopped green onions
OR
1 Tbsp onion powder
OR
2 Tbsp dried minced onion
nuts, any non-peanut 1 cup 1 cup any other kind of nut (non-peanut)
ricotta cheese 1 cup 1 cup dry cottage cheese
(place cottage cheese in sieve and let liquid drip off)
saffron 1/4 tsp 1/4 tsp tumeric
shallots, chopped 1/2 cup 1/2 cup chopped onion
sour cream 1 cup 1 cup plain yogurt
Tahini 1 Tbsp 1 Tbsp peanut butter
tapioca (as thickener) 1 Tbsp 1-1/2 Tbsp flour
Tomatoes, canned 1 cup 1-1/3 cup diced tomatoes, simmered for 5-10 minutes
Tomatoes, fresh 2 cups, chopped 1 16 oz can
yogurt 1 cup 1 cup sour cream
vanilla bean 1 bean 2 Tbsp vanilla extract
vanilla powder 1 tsp 2 tsp vanilla extract
vinegar 1/4 cup 1/3 cup lemon juice

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